The further etymology is unclear. Baku also has several football clubs in the premier and regional leagues, including AZAL and Ravan in Premier League. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, massive fortifications were undertaken in Baku and the surrounding towns. Mstislav Rostropovich, Grammy Award–winning cellist. In 1917, after the October Revolution and amidst the turmoil of World War I and the breakup of the Russian Empire, Baku came under the control of the Baku Commune, which was led by veteran Bolshevik Stepan Shahumyan. Thanks SRG..always been curious...toward the end of that video there is a German general who like rubs his nose and smiles...who is this guy??? Baku's growing importance as a major energy hub remained in sight of the major powers. Clubs with an eastern flavour provide special treats from the cuisine of Azerbaijan along with local music. The Baku Stock Exchange is Azerbaijan's largest stock exchange, and largest in the Caucasian region by market capitalization. The Maiden Tower, the Ramana Tower, the Nardaran Fortress, the Shagan Castle, the Mardakan Castle, the Round Castle and also the famous Sabayil Castle on the island of the Bay of Baku was built during this period. Retrieved 13 July 2011", "Closing ceremony of Cultural Year "Baku- Islamic Culture Capital-2009" conducted in Azerbaijan", Azerbaycan'da Gül Bayramı ve Aliyev'in doğum günü kutlanıyor, "IDEA campaign to hold Earth Hour action", "Baku's Architecture:A Fusion of East and West", "UNESCO celebrates World Cities Day designating 66 new Creative Cities", "Traditional hamams in all its glory in Baku", "Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre And Flame Towers", "Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower – UNESCO World Heritage Centre", "Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower", "Azerbaijan Will Open New Contemporary Art Center in 2015", "Meyxana", ya "bədihə" sözü aləmi bir-birinə qatıb, "Azerbaijan win Eurovision as Blue and Jedward finish mid-table", "Azerbaijan win Eurovision contest with Running Scared", "Baku International Jazz Festival has been opened in Azerbaijan", "Baku International Jazz Festival Official Site", "The Director-General hails the importance of living traditions at the Mugham Festival in Baku, Azerbaijan", "Battlefield 4 a sneaky screen from Baku", "Food and Restaurants in Azerbaijan and Baku", Beograd na vrhu liste gradova sa najboljim noćnim provodom, Экология и охрана окружающей среды в Азербайджане, "Euro 2020: England might have to play games at Hampden Park", "Azerbaijan is a country known for its love of sport and sportsmanship", "Chess players from 11 countries to join "Baku Open 2010. Baku is long attested under the Perso-Arabic name باکو (Bākū). , Baku is twinned with:[in chronological order]. Since 2002, Baku has hosted 36 major sporting events and selected to host the 2015 European Games. Local rail transport includes the Baku Funicular and the Baku Metro, a rapid-transit system notable for its art, murals, mosaics and ornate chandeliers. Oil is in the air one breathes, in one's nostrils, in one's eyes, in the water of the morning bath (though not in the drinking water, for that is brought in bottles from distant mineral springs), in one's starched linen – everywhere. Festivals include Baku International Film Festival, Baku International Jazz Festival, Novruz Festival, Gül Bayramı (Flower Festival) and the National Theater Festival. Verily, the words of the Scriptures find illustration here: 'the rock poured me out rivers of oil. Winter is cool and occasionally wet, with the daily mean temperature in January and February averaging 4.3 °C (39.7 °F). Capturing the oil fields is just the beginning. Once he thought that Britain was out, Hitler turned his forces on Russia during Operation Barbarossa.  Baku is also to host the fourth edition of the Islamic Solidarity Games in 2017. Overall Soviet fuel (note: not oil) production increased in this time period, after all. The Synergy Baku Cycling Project participates in the Tour d'Azerbaïdjan a 2.2 multi-stage bicycle race on the UCI Europe Tour. These will serve the new bus complex as well as the international airport. The modern Azerbaijani spelling, which has been using the Latin alphabet since 1991, is Bakı; the shift from the Perso-Arabic letter و (ū) to Cyrillic "ы" and, later, Latin "ı" may be compared to that in other Azerbaijani words (e.g. . The House of Shirvan, who ruled Baku since the 9th century, was extinguished in the course of the Safavid rule.  Baku joined UNESCO's Network of Creative Cities as a Design City on 31 October 2019 on the occasion of World Cities' Day. This is largely because of its northerly latitude and the fact that it is located on a peninsula on the shore of the Caspian Sea.  Soon after investors appeared in Baku, including the Nobel Brothers in 1873 and the Rothschilds in 1882. The year 1992 signaled the start of a new stage in oil production after the fall in output caused by the profound economic decline in … Throughout history the transport system of Baku used the now-defunct horsecars, trams and narrow gauge railways. Headed by General William Thomson, British troops of 5,000 soldiers, including parts of Dunsterforce, arrived in Baku on 17 November.  The intensive growth of the population started in the middle of the 19th century when Baku was a small town with a population of about 7,000 people. After the Battle of Baku, the Azerbaijani irregular troops, with the tacit support of the Turkish command, conducted four days of pillaging and killing of 10,000 to 30,000 of the Armenian residents of Baku. By the beginning of the 20th century, half of the oil sold in international markets was being extracted in Baku. Other parks and gardens include Heydar Aliyev Park, Samad Vurgun Park, Narimanov Park, Alley of Honor and the Fountains Square. Yuli Gusman, film director and actor, founder and CEO of the Nika Award. , Lotfi A. Zadeh, artificial intelligence researcher, founder of fuzzy mathematics, fuzzy set theory, and fuzzy logic. So the Germans would have had to move the oil the gasoline refineries or build gasoline refineries near Baku. https://www.facebook.com/video.php?v=1216575328530181, Cracking Hitler's Atlantic Wall, the 1st Assault Brigade Royal Engineers on D-Day, Oil of Russia : www.oilru.com : No. Another and even less probable folk etymology explains the name as deriving from Baghkuy, meaning "God's town". From the late 18th century, Imperial Russia switched to a more aggressive geopolitical stance towards its two neighbours and rivals to the south, namely Iran and the Ottoman Empire. The largest universities according to the student population are Baku State University and Azerbaijan State Economic University. The city will also host three group games and one quarter-final of the UEFA Euro 2020 European Football Championship.. Baku remained as an integral part of his empire and the successive Iranian dynasties to come for the next centuries, until the irrevocable cession in the first half of the 19th century. The oil economy of Baku is undergoing a resurgence, with the development of the massive Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli field (Shallow water Gunashli by SOCAR, deeper areas by a consortium led by BP), development of the Shah Deniz gas field, the expansion of the Sangachal Terminal and the construction of the BTC Pipeline.  The newly independent Azerbaijani republic, being unable to defend the independence of the country on their own, asked the Ottoman Empire for military support in accordance with clause 4 of the treaty between the two countries. In 2007 the Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre, designed by Pritzker Prize-winning architect Zaha Hadid, was opened. From the Bronze Age there have been rock carvings discovered near Bayil, and a bronze figure of a small fish discovered in the territory of the Old City. As a result, five new oil and gas fields were discovered and huge oil refinery construction projects were undertaken, including the first pipe line between Kuybishev and Buturslan was built that same year. Shirvanshah Akhsitan I built a navy in Baku and successfully repelled another Rus assault in 1170. Notably, traders from the Indian subcontinent established themselves in the region. Picture Alliance, Getty Images. , Baku has large sections of greenery either preserved by the National Government or designated as green zones. Western-style clubs target younger, more energetic crowds. The retail areas contain shops from chain stores up to high-end boutiques. Agha Mikayil Hamam was constructed in the 18th century by Haji Agha Mikayil on Kichik Gala Street in the Old City (Icherisheher). Filmdə ikinci Dünya müharibəsinin tarixinə tamamilə yeni baxış bucağından – neft uğrunda savaş prizmasından baxılır. In 1942, by the order of the State Defense Committee Oil Refinery of Baku was stopped to produce various kinds of products, for solving the main task – provision of the aviation with ultimate gasoline. However in March 1940 the soviets launched a full scale invasion of northern Iran and took Baku and it's oil fields. When Baku was occupied by the Russian troops during the war of 1804–13, nearly the entire population of some 8,000 people was ethnic Tat.  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